A baby is considered a newborn until he is one month old. During this time, and the following months, because his immune system is not yet mature, he is susceptible to various diseases and infections.
As stated by Dr. Ester Sanz, general secretary of the Spanish Society of Neonatology , “fortunately many of these problems are not usually serious and admission is not always necessary, but sometimes it is necessary to enter to provide more specific treatments and even, in cases much more infrequent, in neonatal intensive care units ”.
What are the most common problems in newborns?
In the first days or weeks of the first birth, it is common for some health problems to arise. Some will appear at the time of birth and others a few days or even weeks later, when the baby is already at home. “Full-term newborns can have different problems, some at the time of birth and others in the first days of life.
At the time of birth, it is normal for the newborn to cry and begin to breathe naturally, but sometimes they may have some difficulty adjusting to breathing and may need help in the first minutes of life . If this difficulty persists, it may be necessary to admit the newborn to provide respiratory support ”, says Ester Sanz.
During the first days of life, others may also appear, such as “decrease in glucose levels, dehydration or the appearance of jaundice (yellowing of the skin due to an increase in bilirubin), etc. There are also other problems related to infections or digestive, for example ”. Among these problems, which are not usually serious, these are some of the most frequent.
A baby eating.
Gastroenteritis in one-year-old babies: what can they eat to get better
• Gastroenteritis: Gastroenteritis is an acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and / or intestines caused by pathogens that can be bacteria, viruses or parasites. The most common symptoms are diarrhea and vomiting, and in the case of babies the most common is that they are caused by a virus. It usually resolves itself, but parents should be careful, above all, that it does not become dehydrated, a serious problem that may require admission in the case of newborns.
• Respiratory infections . They are very common, especially in autumn and winter. Nor are they usually worrisome, especially infections in the upper airways, which cause congestion, cough … If the infection descends to the upper airways, which is less common, it can be more serious, since it can lead to pneumonia or the dreaded bronchiolitis , which they often end in hospitalization.
•Jaundice. It is a fairly common disorder that occurs when there is an excess of bilirubin in the baby’s blood , hence his skin has a yellowish appearance. Fortunately, in addition to the fact that it is not usually serious and resolves in a few days, it usually appears very soon, so it is common for the child to still be in the hospital when the symptoms begin. To avoid complications, it is common to leave the newborn one day admitted.
•Otitis. This annoying inflammation in the ear is very common in babies and young children and is usually due to respiratory infections, giving the bottle while lying down or the abuse of the pacifier, which favors that some bacteria colonize the ear causing pain and fever. Although it is not usually serious, when otitis occurs in the first weeks or months of life, antibiotics are usually prescribed to avoid more serious complications.
How to put a baby with reflux to sleep
•Reflux. Because the esophagus of the newborn is not fully developed, it is quite common for many of them to suffer from gastroesophageal reflux, which causes regurgitation or vomiting. In general, no treatment is necessary and it resolves on its own, but in some cases, in which regurgitations are very frequent, drug treatment or modifying some habits or diet may be necessary until the digestive system matures.
• Skin problems. It is common for the skin of the newborn to be very sensitive, and to react, for example, to the presence of the cloth, some cosmetic products, etc. The dermatitis diaper is common to casus moisture, heat, etc. It improves a lot with specific skin treatments and as the baby grows.
• Constipation . About 30% of newborns have constipation at some point, meaning that their stools are very infrequent and hard. It is more common among bottle-fed children and, although not serious, it can be very bothersome and it is recommended that it be treated.
How to prevent the most common conditions in newborns
There are many diseases or conditions that cannot be prevented, such as jaundice or some “related to an inadequate transition to life outside the mother’s womb or nutritional or digestive problems.” Others, in addition, will arise while the child is in the hospital, so they will be located and treated quickly.
Furthermore, “ health personnel monitor the health status of the birth and provide the necessary indications so that newborns receive adequate care at home . For this reason, the best way to prevent is to follow the instructions received by health personnel (food, hygiene measures, lying face up to sleep, warning signs, etc.) ”, says Dr. Sanz.
Once out of the hospital, “it is important that the newborn go for a check-up at his health center in the first week of life to confirm that he is eating well, gaining weight properly and that he does not present any health problems. In any case, if a newborn rejects the feeds, presents a fever or has symptoms of respiratory infection (such as catarrhal symptoms or cough with respiratory distress), a health center should always be evaluated ”, he warns.